As a regional research area, Latin America has not been much common in Turkey. There are some reasons for this situation. First of all, geographical distance, lack of historical, political and economic relations between Turkey and Latin American countries have detained researchers to encourage them conducting academic studies about Latin American history or politics. Caucasia, Middle East and the Balkans are important in Turkey’s historical development. It means that researchers put heavy emphasis on Caucasian, Middle Eastern and Balkan countries. Also as a technical condition, the necessity of knowledge of Spanish language induced the researchers to avoid Latin American studies.
However, Latin American studies in Turkey are developing steadily in recent years. Economic, social and political changes of Latin America have attracted the attention of the Turkish social scientists. Also similarities between Turkey and Latin American countries especially Mexico, Argentina and Brazil in terms of structural, social, economic and political development processes have been accepted by many social scientists. For this reason academicians have taken an interest in Latin America lately. Due to some technical issues explained above, this interest has been growing slowly. Especially lack of Spanish language education and Latin American political history in social sciences departments of universities has apparently prevented students having a primary interest in Latin America. Even in international relations departments of the universities, Latin American history or politics courses are limited or not available. Also there is not any Latin American culture and literature department for undergraduate students in Turkey. But Department of Spanish Language and Literature at Ankara University gives some courses on Latin American literature and history to the undergraduate students.
Ankara University has been one of the leading institutions trying to develop a Latin American study area in Turkey. In order to carry out various studies and academic works about the region, Latin American Studies Research Center of Ankara University was opened in 2009. But also there are Latin American studies departments for graduate students at Middle East Technical University in Ankara and Bahçeşehir University in Istanbul. On the other hand, there are some books, articles and thesis on Latin American history, societies, politics and economies written by academicians, independent researchers, master and doctoral students. Strategic Research Centers in Turkey have also Latin American research departments. Thus Latin America as a region or Latin American countries one by one have started to be examined especially in a comparative way with Turkey.
Universities, research centers and scholarly organizations where Latin American studies are conducting, books and articles written about Latin America will be explained below under the relevant titles.
- Latin American Studies Research Center of Ankara University
Latin American Studies Research Center was founded on April 11, 2009. The aim of this research center is to make scientific studies on Latin American countries, to determine how the developments in Turkey are perceived in Latin America and the developments in Latin America are perceived in Turkey, to train researchers specializing in Latin America, to organize national and international conferences, seminars, workshops and meetings about Latin American countries, to support the projects of the scientists who would like to make research about the region.
Latin American Studies master programme has been carried out in this research center since the spring semester of 2010-2011 academic year. Latin American Independence Period, Agricultural Policies and Rural Development in Latin America, Spain under the Catholic Kings and Discovery, Indigenous movements in Latin America, Latin American Politics, Military Regimes in Latin America during the Cold War period, Economic History and Development of Latin America are some of the courses taught to master students. On the other hand, a project was performed under the name of “The Beginning of The Relations Between Ottoman State and Latin America In The 200th Year of Independence”. The Latin American states that are the subject of this project are Mexico, Cuba, Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Chile, Ecuador and Peru. This Project was published as a book in 2012 in Turkish, Spanish and Portuguese. The name of the book is Ottoman Empire – Latin America (Initial Period).
The other activity of the center was Latin America Workshop that was organized in Ankara, capital city of Turkey on 22nd-23rd of November, 2012 with collaboration of the Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency and Latin American Studies Research and Application Center. History of Latin America, its social and economic structure, governance and its position in international relations were discussed in the workshop.
In addition to the academic works, Latin American Studies Research Center Library was opened. It is the first one that established in Turkey for the researchers interested in Latin American history, culture and politics. The outstanding works of Latin American literature are found in this library; also there are many other works on Latin American history, culture, economic and social structure and political life.
- Latin And North American Studies at Middle East Technical University
Latin and North American Studies at METU provides interdisciplinary academic programme for the graduate students. Thus students have the opportunity to learn about the history, culture, politics, society and economy of Latin and North America in a comparative way.
There are two must courses of the program each provide a survey of Latin and North American history, economy and politics. Aside from this common core courses students are allowed to tailor their choice of courses according to their particular interests. Proficiency in Spanish is required for the students. Students take at least three levels of Spanish courses offered by the department of modern languages. Latin America: Past, Present and Future Trends, Political Economy of NAFTA, Contemporary Issues in Latin American Politics, Political Economy of Latin America and the Caribbean, Politics and Society in Latin America are some of the courses given to the graduate students.
Students under the guidance of their academic advisors concentrate on a topic and undertake an investigation on a research problematique to complete the major requirements of the program. Students can choose to a write a master thesis or a term project. If they choose the latter they complete the program by taking two additional courses.
In order to build academic linkages with institutions and scholars throughout North and Latin America, bilateral exchange and cooperation agreements are established and maintained with research institutions in the North and Latin America and the Caribbean, thereby it is tried to facilitate transnational collaborative research. Also some seminars are organized on special issues of Latin American Regions.
- American Studies Center at Bahçeşehir University
American Studies Center at Bahçeşehir University aims to examine political, social and cultural structures of Latin American countries and the USA. American Studies Center tries to inform the public about cultural, social, political and economic dynamics of Turkey-US relations and Turkish-Latin American relations via its academic works. American Studies Center provides the researchers and academicians from the USA and Latin American countries to come to Turkey to make academic works within the framework of academic exchange programs.
American Studies Center organizes national and international programs which aim to equip its participants with theoretical and practical knowledge about the Turkish-American relations and the current developments taking place on the American continent. Except national and international certificate programs, American Studies Center runs various projects and organizes round-table meetings which are becoming more and more important within the last years.
- Strategic Research Centers
There are a considerable number of strategic research centers in Turkey. The aim of these centers is to make analysis about regional politics, international relations, conflicted areas in the world, current issues of world politics and bilateral, regional, and multilateral international relations of Turkey. Turkish Asian Center For Strategic Studies (TASAM) is one of them. Latin America and Carribean is one of the research areas of this center.
Academic staff or regional experts of TASAM have arranged some organizations about Latin America. The analyses that have been made by the research experts are on the website of the center. TASAM started to make Latin American and Caribbean studies with the international congress in 2009. Then strategical report about the congress was published. TASAM has maintained Latin American and Caribbean studies since that time. Workshops have been organized in Ankara with the participations of diplomatic mission officials from Latin America and Caribbean and related institutions.
The Turkish-Latin American and Caribbean Congress was held in Ankara between the 23th and 25th of September of 2010 by the cooperation of Turkish Asian Center for Strategic Studies (TASAM) and the Latin American Studies Research Center (LAMER) of Ankara University. In the first and second sessions “Economic Integration and Institutionalization in Latin America and Caribbean”, in the third and fourth sessions “Integration Institutions in Latin America and Caribbean”, in the fifth session “Developmental Cooperation between Turkey and the Latin American and Caribbean Region”, in the sixth and seventh sessions “Integration Institutions and Cooperation Perspectives in Latin America and Caribbean” were presented and discussed. In the 8th and last session of the Congress, which is titled as General Evaluation and Closing Session, Director of the Latin American Studies Research Center, Prof. Dr. Mehmet Necati Kutlu, Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Brazil Marcelo Andrade de Moraes Jardim, Ambassador of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Raul Jose Betancourt Seeland, Ambassador of the Republic of Cuba Jorge Quesada Conception, Ambassador of the Republic of Chile Luis Kenneth Palmas Castillo, Ambassador of the Republic of Ecuador Augusto Alejandro Saa Corriere, Ambassador of the United Mexican States Jaime Garcia Amaral and Ambassador of the Republic of Argentina Armando Juan Jose Maffei presented their evaluation speeches.
The other organization of TASAM was Brazil-Turkey Country Meeting. It was held on the date of 8 – 9 of March 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, under the theme of “Turkey and Brazil: Rising Powers in The Changing World Order”. The aim of the meeting was to describe each country’s role and aim in the current international system, to set communications among the politicians, academicians and analysts from both sides and to produce strategy. The discussion topics were “Regional Policies”, “Economy”, “Social Policies”, “Foreign Policy”, “Energy” and “Global Vision”. Also a report was published at the end of the meeting. Various forums, workshops, meetings and congresses will be maintained to organize and reports to publish by TASAM.
Wise Men Center for Strategic Studies is the other strategic research center in Turkey. Latin America is one of the research areas of this center. Some of the research titles are as follow: “Relations between Iran and Latin America”, “Brazil: Shining Star”, Turkey, Brazil and New Geopolitics of the World”, “The Relations of Turkey and Latin America”, “Integration Efforts of Latin American States and the EU Model”. Another research center is Center for International Strategy and Security Studies where the researchers make analyses about regional politics. There are also some analyses published on the web site of this center about Latin American countries.
Some of the books published in Turkey by Turkish writers on Latin American countries, culture, economics and politics are below:
We Are Making Revolution Here, Señorita (Biz Burada Devrim Yapıyoruz Sinyorita) written by Ece Temelkuran was first published in 2006. Temelkuran tried to explain the process of formation and development of the Bolivarian revolution under the leardership of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela. She is giving her observations about Venezuela and Chavez just after her trip to the readers.
I Would like to Melt at Heavens and Go (Göklerde Eriyip Gitmek İsterdim) written by Ataol Behramoğlu was first published in 2011. Behramoğlu translated some poems of Jose Marti in his book. Kuba Is Not Far Away – The Story Of Our Fidel (Küba Uzak Değil – Bizim Fidel’in Öyküsü) by Dursun Özden was published in 1998. What’s Happening in Venezuela? Hugo Chavez And The Bolivarian Revolution (Venezüella’da Neler Oluyor? Hugo Chavez ve Bolivarcı Devrim) written by Ali Mert was first published in 2005. He analyzed Bolivarian Revolution process and Chavez’s policies in the book. The book is also consisted of Chavez’s speeches and writings and interviews about Venezuela and Chavez.
History of the Revolt in Latin America (Latin Amerika’da İsyanın Tarihi) published in 2008 and Latin America: There Was Always Rebellion (Latin Amerika: İsyan Hep Vardı) published in 2009 were edited by Sibel Özbudun. Struggle against Spanish colonialism and neo liberal capitalism were explained in these books. Latin America Is Revolting (Latin Amerika Başkaldırıyor) written by Temel Demirer, Sibel Özbudun, Cahide Sarı, Subcomandante Marcos was published in 2005; The Return Of Mayas (Mayaların Dönüşü) written by Sibel Özbudun and the others was published in 1998; Zapatistas: Rebels At The World’s Balcony (Dünyanın Balkonundaki İsyancılar: Zapatistalar) written by Sibel Özbudun, Temel Demirer and Fikret Başkaya was published in 1996; Indigenous Movements In Latin America (Latin Amerika’da Yerli Hareketleri) written by Sibel Özbudun was published in 2012. All of these books are about history and current politics of Latin America.
Hugo Chavez And The Revolution At Revolution (Hugo Chavez ve Devrimde Devrim) first published in 2005, Bolivia: from Revolution to Revolution (Devrimden Devrime Bolivya) first published in 2007 were written and The Boiling Veins Of Latin America (Latin Amerika’nın Kaynayan Damarları) first published in 2004 was edited by Masis Kürkçügil.
Charm, Faith and Revolt: Latin American Literature From The Beginning To The 18th Century (Tılsım, İnanç ve Başkaldırı: Başlangıcından 18. Yüzyıla Kadar Latin Amerika Edebiyatı) first published in 2012 was written by Mehmet Necati Kutlu. It is about literal and cultural works of Latin America. Necati Kutlu analyzed and presented important writers and their works from Latin American region in a historical perspective. A Traveler Knight in Turkey: Nogales Mendez (Türkiye’de Bir Gezgin Şövalye: Nogales Mendez) is the other book of Mehmet Necati Kutlu. It was first published in 2000. Nogales Mendez was a Venezuelan soldier, adventurer and writer. Necati Kutlu wrote the period that Mendez’s arrival and life in Ottoman Empire during the First World War. Necati Kutlu is also one of the writers of these books that Ottoman Empire – Latin America (Initial Period) (Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Latin Amerika Başlangıç Dönemi) and Bolivar And Ataturk, Ataturk and Bolivar (Bolivar ve Atatürk, Atatürk ve Bolivar). The other writers of the second book are Kaldone Nweihed and Reinaldo Rojas. Ataturk and Bolivar are the liberators of their own regions. They are heroic figures; Ataturk in Turkey and Bolivar in Latin America. Independence struggles and political principles of them were analyzed and compared in this book. Latin American Stories of 20th Century (20. Yüzyıl Latin Amerika Öyküleri) is the other book that was edited by Necati Kutlu. It was published in 1999.
Relations between Ottoman Empire and Latin America in 19th and 20th Centuries (19. Ve 20. Yüzyılda Osmanlı Latin Amerika İlişkileri) was written by Mehmet Temel and published in 2004. In this book, economic, political and cultural relations of the Ottoman Empire, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Haiti, Chile, Cuba, Venezuela, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, and Bolivia’s in the 19th and 20th centuries were examined.
Mexico Painting Renaissance of 20th Century (20. Yüzyıl Meksika Resim Rönesansı) first published in 1993 was written by Mustafa Aytaç. The History’s Back Room Of America (Tarihin Arka Odası Amerika) first published in 2006 was written by Mustafa Balbay. Balbay wrote about Brazil, Argentina, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Chile, Mayas and Neruda in the book. The Warrior And The Poet: José Marti (Savaşçı ve Şair Jose Marti) first published in 2006 was edited by Orhan Tüleylioğlu. Life, works and thoughts of Jose Marti are the topic of this book. The arteries Of Latin America (Latin Amerika’nın Atardamarları) written by Osman Balcıgil is about four Latin American countries: Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia.
South America: The Sound Of Dance, Music And Revolt (Dansın, Müziğin, Başkaldırının Sesi: Güney Amerika) written by Mustafa Andıç was published in 2009. He wrote his observations and experiences in Latin American countries Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. Understanding Latin America (Latin Amerika’yı Anlamak) was written by Aylin Topal and first published in 2008. Similarities and differences between Latin American countries were analyzed in terms of politics in this book. Military Dictatorship And Women in Latin America (Latin Amerika’da Askeri Diktatörlük ve Kadın) was edited by Ümit Cizre and Serpil Üşür and first published in 1989. Latin America From Bolivar To Chavez (Bolivar’dan Chavez’e Latin Amerika) written by Cüneyt Akalın was published in 2008. Three Aspects of Cuba: Political Representation, Education, Women and Men (Üç Açıdan Küba: Politik Temsil, Eğitim, Kadın- Erkek) was written by Celil Denktaş and published in 2012. Growth And Stability On A Knife Edge: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Israel, Turkey (Bıçak Sırtında Büyüme ve İstikrar / Arjantin, Brezilya, Meksika, İsrail, Türkiye) was written by A. Suut Doğruel and Fatma Doğruel. It was published in 2006. The writers explained economic structures, problems and developments of Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Israel and Turkey in a comparative way.
Lands of The Sun (Güneş Toprakları) and Latin America -The Continent Under The Hat (Şapkanın Altındaki Kıta Latin Amerika) are the books written by Oya Ayman Büber. The first one was published in 1999. It is about daily life and economic, cultural and political structure of Latin America. She wrote this book based on her observations during her trip in Latin America. The last one was published in 2006. This book is based on the experiences of the writer in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina and Mexico.
Some of the articles on Latin America published in Turkey by Turkish writers are below:
Missionary Activities in the 16th Century in Central and Southern America and Their Effects on Natives (16. Yüzyılda Orta ve Güney Amerika’daki Misyoner Faaliyetleri ve Kıta Yerlileri Üzerindeki Etkileri) published in Hacettepe University Journal of Faculty of Letters with the 24th volume and 1st number on June, 2007 was written by Pınar Türkecan.
Spanish Colonialism in Latin America and Simon Bolivar’s Struggle For Independence (Latin Amerika’da İspanyol Sömürgeciliği ve Simon Bolivar’ın Bağımsızlık Mücadelesi) published on January 2013 in the History Studies International Journal of History with Volume 5 Issue 1 was written by Ayşe Yarar.
Relations Between Ottoman Empire And Brazil in 19th and 20th Centuries (19. Ve 20. Yüzyılın Başlarında Osmanlı-Brezilya İlişkileri) was written by Mehmet Temel in 2002 for the Hacettepe University Faculty of Literature Journal, Volume: 19, Issue:2.
Labor Migration From The Ottoman Empire To Brazil And Argentina, And Socio-Economic State Of The Migrants (1850-1915) (Osmanlı’dan Brezilya ve Arjantin’e Emek Göçü ve Göçmenlerin Sosyo-Ekonomik Durumu 1850-1915) published in Marmara University Journal of Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, 28th volume and 1st issue was written by Hamdi Genç and İ. Murat Bozkurt.
Rafael de Nogales Mendez Under The Light of New Informations (Yeni Bilgiler Işığında Rafael de Nogales Méndez) published in Journal of The Center for Ottoman Studies Ankara University numbered 16 in 2004; An Answer To The Question of Why Latin America: Gabriel García Márquez (Neden Edebiyat Sorusuna Latin Amerika’dan Bir Yanıt: Gabriel García Márquez) published in Littera Edebiyat Yazıları Publication volume 22 on June 2008; Venezuela: An Unusual Political-Social Event (Venezuela: Alışılmadık Bir Siyasal-Sosyal Olay) published in Journal of Kamu Yönetimi Dünyası 1st issue of the first year on May 2000; Venezuela On Labyrinth (Labirentindeki Venezuela) published in Journal of Kamu Yönetimi Dünyası 10th issue of the third year on June 2002 were all written by Mehmet Necati Kutlu.
Mexican Land Reform (Meksika Toprak Reformu) published in Ankara University SBF Journal with 22nd volume and 1st issue was written by Turgut Tan and Selçuk Yalçındağ.
Established Revolution vs. Unfinished Revolution: Contrasting Patterns of Democratization in Mexico and Turkey published in Ankara University Faculty of Law Journal 26th volume and numbered 1-2 in 1969 was written by Ergun Özbudun.
The Problems of Latin America (Latin Amerika’nın Sorunları) published in Ankara University SBF Journal with 22nd volume and 3rd issue was written by Ünsal Oskay.
The Requirements of Latin America’s Economic Development (Latin Amerika’nın Ekonomik Gelişmesinin Şartları) published in Ankara University SBF Journal with 8th volume and 1st issue was written by Cahit Talas.
The Effects of Neo Liberal Economic Policies on Latin America (Neo Liberal Ekonomi Politikalarının Latin Amerika Üzerindeki Etkileri) published in Marmara University Journal of Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, 21th volume and 1st issue was written by Zeynep Zafir Benderli and Zeki İlker Görenel.
Global Financial Crisis And Latin American Economies (Küresel Mali Kriz ve Latin Amerika Ekonomileri) published in International Economic Issues Journal numbered 32 was written by Ece Öztürk Çil.
Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 And Turkey Under The Light of New Findings (Yeni Bulgular Işığında 1962 Küba Krizi ve Türkiye) published in Ankara University SBF Journal with 52nd volume and 1st issue was written by Ayşegül Sever.
An Initial To 21st Century Bolivarian Socialism (21. Yüzyıl Sosyalizmine Bolivarcı Paraf) published in Birikim Journal on March, 2006 was written by Tan Morgül.
Chavez’s 13-Year Rule Until The Elections in 2012 (2012 Seçimlerine Giderken Chavez’in 13 Yıllık İktidarı) published in Ankara University SBF Journal with 67th volume and 3rd issue was written by Zeynep Ağdemir.
Effects of Left-Wing Uprising On Political Systems in Latin America (Latin Amerika’da Solun Yükselişinin Siyasal Sisteme Etkileri) published in Mülkiye Journal with the 36th volume and 274th issue in 2012 was written by Sonay Bayramoğlu Özuğurlu.
Argentinian Security Forces (Arjantin Kolluk Teşkilatı) published in Turkish Journal of Police Studies with the Vol: 8 (3-4) was written by M. Murat Özer.
The Economic Instability History of Argentina: Downturns And Upturns (Arjantin’in Ekonomik İstikrarsızlık Tarihi: İnişler ve Çıkışlar) published in Academic Sight International Refereed Online Journal of Social Sciences on April-May-June 2010 numbered 20 was written by Suzan Ergün.
Imperial Dreams in Turkish Press And Ottoman Clock Tower in Mexico (Türk Basınında Emperyal Düşler ve Meksika’daki Saat Kulesi) was written by Aslı Odman on November, 2007 for the journal of Social History (Toplumsal Tarih) numbered 167. Are The Winds Blowing From The Left In Mexico? (Meksika’da Rüzgarlar Sol’dan mı Esiyor?) is the other article written by Aslı Odman. It was published for Birikim journal on March, 2006. Comparison Of Corporatist Populism in Mexico And Solidarist Statism In Turkey After The Great Depression of 1929 (1929 Büyük Buhran Sonrası Meksika’da Korporatist Populizm ve Türkiye’de Solidarist Devletçilik Karşılaştırması) was written by the same writer for a book chapter that was published in 2006 under the name of Development of Capitalism In Turkey.
Latin America And Arab Spring (Latin Amerika Ve Arap Baharı) was written by Evren Çelik Wiltse for the journal of Middle Eastern Analysis on October, 2012 as numbered 37. Declining US Influence and Rise of Latin America’s Regional Power: Some Lessons for Turkey published in 2008 for the 39th volume; Hugo Chavez And Venezuela: The Story of a Different Leader published in 2006 for the Türk Harb-İş Magazine; Hugo Chavez and the 21st Century Socialism in Venezuela (Hugo Chavez ve Venezuella’da Gelişen 21. Yüzyıl Sosyalizmi) published on March 2006 for the Birikim Journal; Lead Researcher: “Brazil and Turkey: Emerging Nations in a Global World” published as a research report for Boğaziçi University -TUSIAD (Turkish Industrialists and Business Association) Foreign Policy Forum numbered DPF 2010-RR 01; Stuck Between Pot and Prostitutes: US Foreign Policy in Latin America published on June 2012 for Economic Policy Research Foundation of Turkey; US Foreign Policy in Latin America And Africa published for a book chapter (the name of the book: US Foreign Policy pressed by Anadolu University ) in 2012 were all written by Mrs. Çelik.
Anti-Emperialism from National Developmentalism to Neoliberal Globalization: Latin American Experiences (Ulusal Kalkınmacılıktan Küresel Neoliberalizme Anti-Emperyalizm:Latin Amerika Deneyimi) published on October 2009 in İstanbul University Political Science Faculty Journal numbered 41 was written by Aylin Topal.
The future for Latin American studies in Turkey is bright. A small, but growing, number of scholars, researchers, academicians are studying Latin America in Turkey. Although the absence or lack of historical relations and ties between Turkey and Latin America, it should be inevitable to study Latin American politics and history especially in a comparative way with Turkey. Because when we look at the modernization and democratization processes, civil-military relations, economic development and policies of the countries of Latin America and Turkey, there are many similarities as well as differences between them. It is definitely worthwhile to examine and evaluate both the similarities and differences to understand the details deeply and to find some other facts not known in both societies. For example we can understand much better the process of modernization and find the difficulties of this process in non-western societies when we compare Turkey and the other Latin American countries. Turkey and Latin American countries can be a good and useful guide to each other.
It should not be forgotten that research activities always depends upon technical conditions, such as the knowledge of the language, the availability of scholarships to go to the relevant region and most importantly, the existence and intensity of diplomatic relations. Even if geographic distance and low level of diplomatic relations of Turkey and Latin American countries constitute a difficulty to study the region, researchers’ willing to study Latin America are able to learn Spanish in the language courses to overcome the language problem. Although there aren’t enough academic units of Spanish language in the departments of Turkish universities, there are many good Spanish language courses in big cities of Turkey. Also Mexican Government gives scholarship to the graduate students (in a limited number) for master, PhD and research programmes every year. On the other hand, some institutions like the Council of Higher Education (YÖK) and the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) provide scholarship to the researchers in Turkey for their academic works abroad. Thus Latin America is able to be examined and studied much more in academic works.
 Mehmet Necati Kutlu, Şebnem Atakan, Erkan Yurtaydın, Özlem Kaygusuz, Nazan Çiçek, Gökhan Erdem Ottoman Empire – Latin America (Initial Period) (Osmanlı İmparatorluğu- Latin Amerika -Başlangıç Dönemi), Directorate of Ankara University Research Center for Latin American Studies, Ankara, February 2012.
 Visit the pages for detailed information: – http://www.tasam.org/en/Spektrum/9/Latin_Amerika_ve_Karayipler?
 http://www.tasam.org/en/Icerik/3238/2nd_turkish-latin_american_and_caribbean_congress_was_held_in_ankara. Also visit the page: http://www.tasam.org/en/Icerik/3241/2nd_turkish-latin_american_congress_in_ankara.
 Visit the page to see the report: http://www.tasam.org/Files/Icerik/File/turkiye_-_brezilya_raporu_yayimlandi_92c35ba9-3ebb-452b-a9c0-5c85c85f0d2c.pdf.
 Visit the page for the analyses: – http://www.usgam.com/tr/index.php?l=807&cid=1841&konu=0&bolge=0